Moon & Solar Matching Cycles

From Dana MacKenzie, Who hung the Moon:

Fortunately, the lunar and solar cycles do match up very closely every 19 years. Earth takes 19 trips around the sun in almost exactly the time that the moon takes 235 trips around Earth. (The difference is about two hours.) This means that your lunisolar calendar needs to have 12 normal years of 12 months, and 7 long years of 13 months, in each 19-year cycle. (12 x 12 + 7 x 13 = 144 + 91 = 235.) This fact was discovered by the ancient Babylonians and the ancient Greeks; the 19-year cycle is called the Metonic cycle after Meton of Athens. In the Hebrew calendar, it became a standard practice to have long years in years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 19 of the cycle.

Note: This cycle falls within the 22 year, if, galactic plane oscilation, two Jupiter orbital years. Meaning gravitational waves from the galactic center must play a part in Lunar standstil cycles.

From Wikipedia:
Lunar standstill
At a major lunar standstill, which takes place every 18.6 years, the range of the declination of the Moon reaches a maximum. As a result, at high latitudes, the Moon’s greatest altitude (at culmination, when it crosses the meridian) changes in just two weeks from high in the sky to low over the horizon. This time appears to have had special significance for the Bronze Age societies who built the megalithic monuments in Britain and Ireland, and it also has significance for some neo-pagan religions. Evidence also exists that alignments to the moonrise or moonset on the days of lunar standstills can be found in ancient sites of other ancient cultures, such as at Chimney Rock in Colorado and Hopewell Sites in Ohio.

Origin of name Edit
The term “lunar standstill” was apparently first used by archeologist Alexander Thom in his 1971 book “Megalithic Lunar Observatories”.[1] The term “solstice”, which derives from the Latin solstitium: sol- (sun) + -stitium (a stoppage), describes the similar extremes in the sun’s varying declination. Neither the sun nor the moon stands still, obviously; what stops, momentarily, is the change in declination. The word ‘tropic’, as in Tropic of Capricorn, comes from ancient Greek meaning ‘to turn’, referring to how ascending (/descending) motion turns to descending (/ascending) motion at the solstice.[2]

Informal explanation

image

2005/2007: El Niño-La Niña Years
Dr. Judith S. Young
Dept. of Astronomy
Univ. of Mass., Amherst
Updated December 2010
The text below is based on an Education Press Conference which I was invited to present at the San Diego meeting of the American Astronomical Society

ABSTRACT

With the culmination of the 18.6-year cycle of the Moon in 2006 and again in 2024-25, also called the Major Lunar Standstill, we are afforded the unique opportunity to observe the monthly, annual, and 18.6-year wanderings of the Moon. The 18.6-year cycle is caused by the precession of the plane of the lunar orbit, while this orbit maintains a 5° tilt relative to the ecliptic. At the peak of this cycle, the Moon’s declination swings from -28.8° to +28.8° each month. What this means is that each month for the years 2005-2007 and also 2023-2026, the Moon can be seen rising and setting more northerly and also more southerly than the solar extremes, and will transit monthly with altitudes which are higher in the sky than the summer Sun and lower in the sky than the winter Sun.

That was a Major Lunar Standstill, now a minor, 2015, September 20, the incoming equinox and the Semita.

image

2.005 Major – 2015 Minor – 2023 Major,
end of 18.5 year lunar cycle. Problem 1 solved, we are in the midpoint. What can we expect? This El Niño surpassed the 1998 strongest recorded. 18.5 years later:

image

2005 was bad too, in other ways and places and I would expect a tendency of 2023 to be like 2005, for those who suffered it, only increasingly upsetting in trend.

Here I paste a breaking news on Jupiter’s Aurora studies in the search for understanding of the solar wind workings in the Solar System. Jupiter has a 11.86 years orbit. 3 is 36. Hey! That’s two lunar Metonic years.

Your source for the latest research news
Breaking:
Science Newsfrom research organizations
Solar storms trigger Jupiter’s ‘northern lights’
Date:
March 23, 2016
Source:
University College London
Summary:
Solar storms trigger Jupiter’s intense ‘Northern Lights’ by generating a new X-ray aurora that is eight times brighter than normal and hundreds of times more energetic than Earth’s aurora borealis, finds new research.
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Artistic rendering of Jupiter’s magnetosphere.
Credit: JAXA
Solar storms trigger Jupiter’s intense ‘Northern Lights’ by generating a new X-ray aurora that is eight times brighter than normal and hundreds of times more energetic than Earth’s aurora borealis, finds new UCL-led research using NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

urora borealis, finds new UCL-led research using NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory.
It is the first time that Jupiter’s X-ray aurora has been studied when a giant storm from the Sun has arrived at the planet. The dramatic findings complement NASA’s Juno mission this summer which aims to understand the relationship between the two biggest structures in the solar system — the region of space controlled by Jupiter’s magnetic field (i.e. its magnetosphere) and that controlled by the solar wind.

“There’s a constant power struggle between the solar wind and Jupiter’s magnetosphere. We want to understand this interaction and what effect it has on the planet. By studying how the aurora changes, we can discover more about the region of space controlled by Jupiter’s magnetic field, and if or how this is influenced by the Sun. Understanding this relationship is important for the countless magnetic objects across the galaxy, including exoplanets, brown dwarfs and neutron stars,” explained lead author and PhD student at UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory, William Dunn.

The Sun constantly ejects streams of particles into space in the solar wind. When giant storms erupt, the winds become much stronger and compress Jupiter’s magnetosphere, shifting its boundary with the solar wind two million kilometres through space. The study found that this interaction at the boundary triggers the high energy X-rays in Jupiter’s Northern Lights, which cover an area bigger than the surface of the Earth.

Published today in the Journal of Geophysical Research – Space Physics a publication of the American Geophysical Union, the discovery comes as NASA’s Juno spacecraft nears Jupiter for the start of its mission this summer. Launched in 2011, Juno aims to unlock the secrets of Jupiter’s origin, helping us to understand how the solar system, including Earth, formed.

As part of the mission, Juno will investigate Jupiter’s relationship with the Sun and the solar wind by studying its magnetic field, magnetosphere and aurora. The UCL team hope to find out how the X-rays form by collecting complementary data using the European Space Agency’s X-ray space observatory, XMM-Newton, and NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory.

“Comparing new findings from Jupiter with what is already known for Earth will help explain how space weather is driven by the solar wind interacting with Earth’s magnetosphere. New insights into how Jupiter’s atmosphere is influenced by the Sun will help us characterise the atmospheres of exoplanets, giving us clues about whether a planet is likely to support life as we know it,” said study supervisor, Professor Graziella Branduardi-Raymont, UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory.

The impact of solar storms on Jupiter’s aurora was tracked by monitoring the X-rays emitted during two 11 hour observations in October 2011 when an interplanetary coronal mass ejection was predicted to reach the planet from the Sun. The scientists used the data collected to build a spherical image to pinpoint the source of the X-ray activity and identify areas to investigate further at different time points.

William Dunn added, “In 2000, one of the most surprising findings was a bright ‘hot spot’ of X-rays in the aurora which rotated with the planet. It pulsed with bursts of X-rays every 45 minutes, like a planetary lighthouse. When the solar storm arrived in 2011, we saw that the hot spot pulsed more rapidly, brightening every 26 minutes. We’re not sure what causes this increase in speed but, because it quickens during the storm, we think the pulsations are also connected to the solar wind, as well as the bright new aurora.”

Another study out today, led by Tomoki Kimura from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and co-authored by the UCL researchers, reports that the X-ray aurora responds to quieter ‘gusts’ of solar wind, deepening this connection between Jupiter and the solar wind.

The UCL-led study also involved researchers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Boston University, Observatoire de Paris, MIT, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), University of Southampton, University of Leicester, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and University of Michigan. It was kindly funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), NASA, the Natural and Environmental Research Council (NERC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University College London. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:

William R. Dunn, Graziella Branduardi-Raymont, Ronald F. Elsner, Marissa F. Vogt, Laurent Lamy, Peter G. Ford, Andrew J. Coates, G. Randall Gladstone, Caitriona M. Jackman, Jonathan D. Nichols, I. Jonathan Rae, Ali Varsani, Tomoki Kimura, Kenneth C. Hansen, Jamie M. Jasinski. The Impact of an ICME on the Jovian X-ray Aurora. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2016; DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021888
Cite This Page:
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University College London. “Solar storms trigger Jupiter’s ‘northern lights’.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 March 2016. .
(Everything below here is just Science Daily things. This work is finished here.)

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Space & Time
Solar Flare
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Aurora (astronomy)
Jupiter
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